Wars and Revolutions

Causes, Development, and Diplomatic Effects of the War of Succession in Spain

In sixteen-ninetieths, the geographical reformation of the most powerful European monarchies has begun. Technically, the partition treaties of the late seventeenth century and the War of Succession in Spain in the early eighteenth century paved the way for further political development and transformation of Europe. Particularly, the processes of division of spheres of interest began with the death of King Charles II. Spain, in its own way, was an interesting item for the most influential European monarchical dynasties, specifically, that of the Bourbons, Habsburgs, and Wittelsbachs (“The War of the Spanish Succession”).

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Broadly speaking, the aforementioned royal clans of Europe fought to take over the Spanish dominion after King Charles’ II death (“The War of the Spanish Succession”). Thus, the French King Louis XIV and the Austrian Emperor Leopold I were considered the main challengers, candidates who fought for ascending the throne of Spain (“The War of the Spanish Succession”). The interests of the Habsburg clan on the discussed matter were not taken into account. Thus, the Succession War in Spain began.

In 1702 England and Holland entered the Succession War alongside Austria (“The War of the Spanish Succession”). The interests of Austria in that particular case were fairly self-explanatory. Holland and England, on the other hand, attempted to resist French expansion and to prevent French aggression from spreading (“The War of the Spanish Succession”). The contribution of the German kingdoms to the development of the Spanish Succession War was unprecedentedly unparalleled, particularly as Prussia took a stand in favor of Habsburg’s protectorate over Spanish dominion, whilst Bavaria supported the French (“The War of the Spanish Succession”).

The treaty of Utrecht of 1713, signed by France and Spain, specified that King Philip V would become the ruler of Spain. According to the Utrecht Treaty, France took over such British colonies as Nova Scotia, Hudson Bay, and Newfoundland (“The War of the Spanish Succession”). France, in return, refused from any further support of the banished Stuarts. Holland and Britain were “granted commercial privileges” (“The War of the Spanish Succession”).

The Independence of the United States and Its Impact on European Monarchies

As the United States of America formed into a unitary and sovereign country, it began to be respected by the most influential European monarchies. There are some central notions determining the world view of the American people. Americans are open, enterprising, good-humored, kind-hearted, and ambitious. Due to the aforementioned virtues, the American model of a country is regarded by many as a good example to follow.

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The Americans “always shared a common belief in their nation’s great destiny” (Kagan 87). The World War I and the World War II made Europe dependent on the American mechanisms of providing global security (Kagan 17). The USA referred to the European movements for independence as a manifestation of the European peoples’ desire for freedom, peace, and respect of honor and dignity (Kagan 28).

Global security has always been a problem of paramount importance. In the USA in particular the issue of safety was scrutinized. When challenged by the domestic problems, USA was no longer capable of performing the defense functions as effectively as it did in the past (Kagan 42-43). European countries, in their turn, were challenged by a goal of creating their own military capability (Kagan 52).

The history of Europe and the United States of America are characterized by not a small amount of controversial and ambiguous cases. The impact of America on European monarchies, their retaining of monarchy as a form of government, and their changing of the latter to a more democratic republican form has had its both positive and negative consequences. By and large, the United States of America have, in some ways, influenced the advancement of the human systems and the world order in general.

Causes, Development, and Diplomatic Effects of the French Revolution

French Revolution is regarded as the world’s first bourgeois revolution. The revolution as a significant historical event embraced a great deal of social, economic, political, and cultural implications. The causes of the French Revolution are associated mainly with authoritarian model practiced by monarchs of the Bourbon clan. The results, in their turn, are contradictory. One the one hand, the French Revolution has proved that  folk is a powerful force. On the other hand, state authorities’ focusing on purely domestic problems may lead to unexpected consequences (Bukovansky 196).

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The causes of the French Revolution were mainly political, social, and economic. Eighteenth century France from the modern perspectives is characterized as an autocratic monarchy. It has happened so as the Bourbon dynasty referred themselves as the messengers of God (Rana). Louis’s XIV famous saying is “I am the State, the State is me”. Consequently, the ordinary people were oppressed. The social causes were as follows. The eighteenth century French society was split into three main groups, namely: the clergymen, nobility, and the common people (Rana). Clergy and nobility, each as a separate class, had their own privileges, primarily, in paying the taxes (Rana). Common people were in a favorable position by no means. Thus, as the common people’s frustration grew, they were becoming more and more radicalized.

Circumstantially, the French Revolution destabilized the world order that existed after the Westphalia peace treaty of the late 1640s (Bukovansky 198). In the long run, the French Revolution made a full-scale military conflict in the late eighteenth-century Europe possible (Bukovansky 198). The external factors have contributed to the radicalization and the spread of revolutionary ideas amongst the French people (Bukovansky 198).   

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