Table of Contents
Hypertension is a serious health condition caused by increase in blood pressure on the walls of the arteries. Its symptoms are not easily recognizable and, as a result, an individual might not realize that he or she is suffering from the disease. It mostly occurs in men rather than women, and the age group that is most susceptible to the disease is those above 65. Dilation of the walls of the arteries causes lowering of blood pressure. Blood pressure also rises when it pumps blood to the arteries (Ackley & Ladwig, 2010). As it stops, the pressure reduces and later increases again to continue pumping blood. Hypertension results in damages to the major blood vessels. These different degrees of pressure are called systolic pressures. The other type of blood pressure is diastolic. For instance, a person with systolic pressure of 130 and diastolic pressure of 90 ultimately has blood pressure of 130/90.
The ideal blood pressure an average person should have is 120/80. However, if this increases to 140/90, then the person has hypertension. According to surveys, most Americans above 65 have been diagnosed with the disease. The condition is severe, because patients are at risk of developing complications like renal failure, heart disease, arteriosclerosis, and cerebrovascular accident. Some of the symptoms are migraine and difficulties with vision. The paper aims at investigating the issues regarding hypertension, various risk factors, treatment, and the role of nurses in managing the disease (Ackley & Ladwig, 2014).
Malignant high blood pressure results in most hypertension symptoms. It is a situation more severe than normal pressure. For an individual to confirm that he or she has the disease, routinely medical examinations are paramount. It is only after two visits or more when one can confirm the disease. Both examinations should be conducted with an interval of three weeks, and the blood pressure reading should be 140/90 for a hypertension condition. An individual’s medical history is vital to determine the risk factors. A patient undergoes two or more measurements on both arms in different positions.
Among the other examinations are the retina, weight, height, edema, and abdominal in order to determine abnormal sounds. These sounds may be the result of blood flowing through narrow blood vessels. These medical examinations are significant to establish the existence of hypertension and its effects on the other organs. Adults have different blood pressure results than children. There are various stages that hypertension undergoes. The first step of high blood pressure involves systolic of between 140-159mm and diastolic of between 90-99mm Hg (Bakris & Baliga, 2012). Stage two entails systolic pressure of 160mm Hg and above, while the diastolic pressure is 100 mm Hg and more.
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Myra Levin’s Model
Myra Estrin developed a model that emphasizes the maintenance of wholeness in patients. HFSON applies the model that uses the principles of conservation to explain the same. It gives nurses guidance on how to deal with patients’ responses, especially on the organismic level. The principles that the nurses use are conservation of structure and energy as well as personal and social integrity. The other essential concepts concerning the model are wholeness and adaptation. Adaptation entails embracing change, while conservation is what results from that particular adaptation. A patient is expected to retain integrity and identify himself/herself within the environment he or she is in, for instance, in a hospital (Hazard & Vallerand, 2015). Wholeness, on the other hand, involves positive interaction between the patient’s inner self and the outer environment. The model is focused on four principles used in maintaining wholeness of a person.
The conservation of energy entails maintaining equal levels of energy in and out of the body to avoid being tired. Different ways to accomplish this involve frequent exercises, enough rest, and adequate diet. Structural integrity involves prevention of any physical damage and enhancing healing in case of a breakdown. The body structure should remain intact. Conservation of personal integrity emphasizes promotion of self-respect, recognition, and awareness of one’s strengths and weaknesses. A patient should not lose self-respect, especially when suffering from hypertension. It is a serious condition and informing about it at an early stage might save one’s life (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2013).
The HFSON, Myra Levin’s model, gives a clear description of what nurses need to do when it comes to maintaining structural integrity. Social integrity entails viewing a person as a member of a particular society, family or country. An individual should have a sense of belonging and identity. One can preserve social integrity through preserving positive reputations and place in the community. According to HFSON, nurses should understand the patients’ place of origin as this will enhance their relationship and confidence to disclose medical history. HFSON tries to reveal different approaches how a patient’s needs are taken care of through the model. Management of hypertension is a collective effort, and thus patients need normal energy levels to go through the process.
Nurses have various roles relating to the management of hypertension. The primary task practiced by most nurses across the world is to advise, educate, and take measurements of blood pressure (Kee, 2013). In case of education, nurses should provide information to patients about stress, diet, alcohol intake, and exercise. They should distinguish different healing methods or therapies according to the patient’s needs. Many studies have proved the effectiveness of exercise and handling stress in reducing the levels of blood pressure. In other instances, salt restriction has worked as a remedy for eliminating severe cases of hypertension. Nurses should possess adequate knowledge on the impact of weight loss on hypertension patients. As a result, they can educate patients on different ways of losing weight without suffering from the other physical disorders.
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Another role that nurses practice is the measurement of hypertension. This role acts as an initial stage of hypertension care. A nurse has higher chances of creating a better relationship with the patient. They have a responsibility of ensuring that the patient takes his or her medication. Regular examinations of their conditions enhance their interaction. The patients find it comfortable visiting their nurses than physicians for examination of blood pressure levels (Kee, Hayes, & McCuistion, 2015).
Evidence-Based Practice to Hypertension
Treatment of hypertension requires changing one’s lifestyle. Some of these ways are eating healthy, exercising regularly, and stopping smoking. There are different approaches to changing one’s lifestyle and having a healthy one. People with weight problems should consider weight loss. Excessive weight results in the other complications, not just hypertension, and they are at risk of heart diseases. Smoking results in damage to major organs, such as the lungs, and patients are advised to stop smoking.
Diet is a vital component of lifestyle that needs changing. People who eat food that contains too much fat are at a higher risk of having hypertension. Too much sodium in a diet can result in high blood pressure, and people are advised to take food with sodium levels at 1500 milligrams and lower (Messerli, 2011). Adults are advised to reduce their sodium intake to about 2300 milligrams and below. Apart from a healthy diet, regular physical activity reduces chances of high blood pressure, since it results in burning calories. A person might also lose weight from these exercises.
Drugs also help in the treatment of hypertension. Some of them include Alpha-blockers, diuretics, renin inhibitors, beta-blockers, and angiotensin 11 receptor blockers. The popular medication is diuretics that act as the first therapy for such patients. However, people with diabetes can start treatment with the other drugs such as ACE inhibitors. In some cases, a particular drug might not be operative and doctors may recommend intake of two drugs. There is a need for patients after starting treatment to go for regular doctor visits (Mosby’s Medical Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary, 2010). The reason is to ascertain the effectiveness of the medication and the progress in a person’s treatment.
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Hypertension is a serious medical condition caused by high blood pressure in the arteries, and it can result in stroke and heart diseases. The disease has symptoms such as poor vision, but it is usually hard to detect. Different factors such as diet and exercise relate to a person’s lifestyle. Treatment of hypertension is effective through proper medication and changes in one’s lifestyle. Patients need to learn about the risks associated with alcohol intake, smoking, and eating unhealthy diet. Patients need to understand various causes of hypertension and avoid them. Proper management by nurses could result in adequate help and comfort even at the time of treatment. The paper also explored the roles of nurses in ensuring better recovery through education and maintaining proper interactions.