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Desk Research on Promotional Factors


The promotional activities linked to the marketing of goods, products and services enhance the efficiency of buyers. The efforts of the sales staff are geared towards boosting sales in the short and long term as well as motivate repeat purchases from the customers. Organizations spend large parts of their budget on promotional activities to make the goods more valuable, appealing, and attractive to the buyer. The promotional activities can be described as a manipulation of the buyer behavior and purchasing activities of the consumers to achieve the set sales target (Fader, Hardie, and Sen, 2014). The companies can have strong promotional strategies or campaigns as well as a change in the pricing approach. There are numerous factors that affect consumer behavior such as social, cultural, demographic, economic, environmental, promotional and educational level, and personal factors. Numerous studies have been done about all the factors, but little research exists on how promotional factors affect buyer behavior. In the recent years, various companies invest millions in promotional activities rather than pricing. The advertisements are rather detailed, captivating, and appealing to the user. However, the extent of their influence on purchasing decision of a consumer has not been determined. The purpose of the essay seeks to understand how promotional factors affect the consumer buyer behavior (Kaushal 2014).

Research Questions and Statement

The main objective of the present study is to investigate how promotional factors influence consumer buyer behavior. • How do advertisements and promotional campaigns and tools influence the behavior of the consumers? • Does a promotional campaign influence a change in buying decision and preference of the consumer? • Do promotional strategies and activities increase the number of sales? • Does an advertisement change the view of the customer on a product?

Purpose of a Literature Review

There is a need to carry out a deep literature review on how promotional factors affect consumer-purchasing behavior. The marketing managers have always used sales promotion to increase the sales of goods and services. The purpose of a literature review is to enable the researcher to understand the effects of the promotional tools on the buyer behavior. Such information can help in identifying the most effective and efficient promotional tool. The review is important to understand the taste of consumers on the various promotional factors (Kaushal 2014). The management of an organization can plan and manage the marketing resources to gain maximum profit. The traders will understand the behavior of the consumers and use the best practices and efficient techniques to advertise to attract the right customers. The buying behavior of consumers is complex since it is hard to understand the attitudes, thoughts, and motives behind a product choice or decision. The literature collection will help the marketers to understand the factors that make a customer make a preference of one service or good over another (Kaushal 2014).

Adequate Background Research

A background research will be done on promotional factors and how they affect buyer behavior. The background research will be collected from primary and secondary sources. Internet sources, such as journals, will be utilized in the desk research.

Overview of Available Literature on the Topic

The research has been done on the promotional factors and their effect on consumer behavior. Researchers concur that there is a relationship between promotional factors and consumer behavior. Marketers comprehend the value of goods and the direct experience of a service or a good. A promotion is carried out sporadically to achieve high sales, as the consumers do not anticipate it. Therefore, the promotion factors largely influence the decision of a consumer (Kaushal 2014).

Overview Of Key Concepts

The key concepts in the study will be promotional factors and their components including free samples, price cut, sales campaign, social and physical environment, buyer behavior, and direct sales.


The theory of motivation-organism response and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs will be discussed in a bid to understand buyer behavior and effect of promotional factors on consumers.

Description of the Approach

Conducting desk research involves an organized plan to review the literature and the sources to be used.

Description of the Process Followed In Reviewing of the Literature

Collection of data will follow a systematic process. Theoretical framework will be established after the reference has been made to secondary sources of data, such as, newspaper, books, journals, annual reports, magazines, and credible internet sources. Primary sources from the thesis, government statistics, and the census will be used in conceptual and empirical framework (Butkevičienė, Stravinskienė and Rūtelionienė 2015).

Description of the Sources

The sources used will be primary and secondary in nature. The primary sources are government statistics and thesis while secondary sources include newspaper, books, journals, annual reports, magazines, and credible internet sources. Surveys will be carried out on consumers to collect first-hand data on promotional factors experience. Interviews and questionnaires on consumer behavior, personal preferences, and influences on purchasing decisions will be employed as a primary data source (Haghshenas, Abedi, Ghorbani, Kamali and Harooni 2013).


The literature review will be a conclusive research on theories of consumer behavior, conceptual mix and customer characteristics, and conceptual framework.

Themes and Chronology

The themes to be included in the literature review will be a theoretical and conceptual framework, empirical review and gaps in research. Theoretical behavior will discuss theories, buyer behavior, and promotional factors. The conceptual framework will show the relationship between independent and dependent variables in the study (Bahng and Kincade 2014). The empirical review will discuss the practical aspect of the theoretical literature as well as the gaps in literature.

Debate Between Schools and Thoughts

There is a debate on the different schools of thought on consumer models, characteristics, and how they affect the purchasing decision made. The study will consider two models: Huff's Topological Model that explains the consumer’s perception before making a purchase and Sheth's integrative theory that explains consumers’ shopping preference. The two models will help the researcher to understand the relationship between consumer behavior and promotional factors (Al-Gahaifi and Světlík 2014).


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