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It is no matter how fragile and delicate the relationship between the spouses is, but the infertility diagnosis is always a serious blow to the family. It is hard to carry this message especially to women because the birth of a child is the main purpose of their existence and an integral part of their life. Unfortunately, the relationship between the spouses could change after the verdict rendered by a physician. The infertility diagnosis instantly changes not only the conception of their life but also divides the life of the whole family into two parts, "before" and "after" the diagnosis.
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Infertility is one of the actual and difficult problems in the medical and psychological field. In fact, it is the inability to conceive a child within one year of sexual activity without the use of any contraceptive methods. According to the World Health Organization, an average of about 5% of the population is infertile due to the anatomical, genetic, endocrine, and immunological factors. In the study of the causes of infertility, the male factor is observed in almost 30% of cases. Besides, the female infertility factor is 30-35%, and the combined factors appear in 20% of cases. The etiological factors are not identified during the examination of the causes of infertility in 15-20% of couples. Fortunately, the latest technology makes possible the identification of the causes of infertility in 80-90% of cases and successfully treating 50% of couples with this complication (Bell, 2013). In fact, the normal frequency of fertilization in couples with impaired fertility is about 20-25% per month, which corresponds to 85-90% for a couple for 18 months. Besides, it is necessary to research the causes of infertility for the remaining 10-15% of couples who have no conception during this period. The incidence of pregnancy correlates more with the female age than the age of the male. Thus, for women less than 30 years old, the probability of fertilization is 70-75%. For those who are 30-35 years old, the probability is 60%. Finally, for women over 36 years old, the probabilityof fertilization is 50%. Thus, at the global level, World Health Organization estimated the number of infertile couples to 48.5 million with a confidence interval of 45-52 million. Moreover, they include 19.2 million people that have difficulties with the birth of the first child and 29.3 million that cannot have a second child.
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In fact, women can have the absolute, primary, and secondary infertility. The absolute infertility is encountered in the absence of the uterus or ovaries and other serious defects in the development of female sexual organs that are incompatible with pregnancy. The diagnosis of the primary infertility refers to the women who have never been pregnant and whose pregnancy does not occur after one year of regular sexual activity without contraception. Secondary infertility type is the inability to become pregnant for women who had at least one pregnancy. The main causes of the female infertility are hormonal disorders, obstruction of the fallopian tubes, various gynecological diseases, and immunological factors. Besides, 30-35% of the infertile marriages are associated with the male factor. The reasons that lead to male infertility are various. Most often, the reasons are the following: varicocele (varicose veins seminal cord), infection of the paranasal sexual glands, and immunological and endocrine disorders (Allen, Maguire, Williams, & Sanger, 1996).
In fact, after the infertility diagnosis, many women are subjected to depression and the feeling of inferiority. In fact, in this difficult situation, women need constant communication on the disturbing topic, so a professional nurse must provide them with qualified support. Besides, men can be not ready to talk constantly about the issue of infertility. Consequently, a family often faces several challenges when they have the infertility diagnosis. For instance, it is the feeling of guilt in front of their partner and in relation to the closest relatives. Families often think that they disappoint their parents because they do not give them grandchildren and do not pass on theirr genes. Sometimes, such families develop negative self-esteem when couples constantly interrogate themselves when they will have a child. Besides, infertility can lead to the feelings of inferiority. Such couples are sure that there must be a certain reason why it happened to them, and most of people who cannot have children feel stigmatized. In such situation, a professional nurse must provide appropriate support and care. For example, medical worker must help a couple learn how to perceive themselves as they are. In many situations, such method helps people conceive a child, and the role of a nurse in such situations is sufficient. Infertile families also experience the feeling of isolation and envy. People who cannot have children start to look enviously at the couples who are expecting a baby or having the offspring. Of course, infertile couples have no personal animosity towards families with children, but sometimes their appearance causes suffering for the childless family. As for the feeling of isolation, the couples without children often avoid family meetings, general holidays, or other celebrations. In such situations, a professional nurse must help them learn how to enjoy life and be open to all despite of this terrible disease (Bell, 2013).
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Besides, infertile couples should not despair because today there are numerous effective methods of solving their problem. In fact, a nurse must provide information that competent and experienced doctors after all the diagnostic procedures could determine the treatment of infertility. Moreover, a medical worker should assure a couple that doctors would do everything possible to assist them in conceiving a child. Furthermore, there is a list of the most common infertility treatment methods. Firstly, a professional nurse should suggest a method of the planned sexual intercourse. Due to this way, a doctor determines the accurate ovulation period through which successful fertilization may occur. Secondly, a nurse should recommend to the infertility couple one of the methods of artificial insemination due to their health features.
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