Nursing Decision Making
  1. How does Standing define decision-making in nursing and why is this considered important?

Standing characterizes decision-making in nursing as protected, mindful, and capable choices made to acknowledge individual and expert responsibility for activities and consistent learning through a statutory skeleton and code of morals conveying nursing practice (Mcintyren and Mcdonald 2014). It focuses on exploration confirmation and basic feeling that viably reacts to the needs of individual customers and different populace.

Decision-making includes accountability and using research evidence while citing critical thinking that reflects the aspects of clinical judgment. This makes scientific interpretation of evidence-based clinical decision-making very important.

       2. Write short notes on the research study undertaken by standing which led to the development of 10 different types of clinical decision making.

The research is shaped using hermeneutic phenomenology in exploring nursing experiences in decision-making during a four-year study to become a registered nurse. The research used and analyzed journals by twenty students (Levett-Jones and Bourgeois 2011). This was in addition to interviews with each student at each stage. The information helped students to clarify their personal understanding of nursing and perceptions of decision-making skills. This generated transcripts that were analyzed to reveal ten conceptions of nursing and ten perceptions of clinical decision-making

        3. Clinical reasoning defined by the authors and the processes involved

Clinical reasoning entails a type of engaged moral reasoning applied in the nursing practice. Educational experience provides students with an upper hand in patient care with a deep concern for their safety. Thus, clinical reasoning has to be engaged when dealing with the precise patient conditions and situations connected with the general knowledge and rational process.

The required processes are:

  1. considering a patient’s situation
  2. collecting information
  3. processing information, identifying problems
  4. establishing goals
  5. taking action
  6. evaluating outcomes and finally reflecting on the process and new learning

        4. Consider the authors’ stance on ‘the right cues’ (page 517) and identify the kinds of knowledge that need to be drawn on when observing patients and collecting cues.

In collecting cues, we review, gather, and recall information. Review involves current information e.g. patient’s health history, charts, results of investigation, and previously undertaken medical assessments. We then gather new information undertaking new tests. In recalling, we use knowledge of pathophysiology, pharmacology, epidemiology, therapeutics, practice of care, context of care, and ethics (Holland and Roberts 2013).

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        5. What factors may impact on cue collection resulting in inappropriate judgements being made?

Inappropriate judgments can be made in case of errors involved in cue collection like anchoring which means locking onto a salient feature of a patient’s presentation. Ascertainment  of bias implies that one’s thinking is based on prior assumptions and perceptions. Confirmation of bias can also lead to inappropriate judgments with the tendency to look for confirming evidence instead of refuting evidence. Fundamental distribution error can also lead to being judgmental and blame patients for their illness rather than the circumstances that may have been responsible for it. Overconfidence bias makes us believe that we know more than we that, in turn, leads to incomplete information.

Key health issues and the groups particularly vulnerable

Some of the key health issues that affect the society are learning disabilities. Most of the families that suffer from learning disabilities are often dormant since they find it difficult to explain their conditions. Basically, many people are not able to detect the signs at an early stage; by the time they realize the condition, it becomes difficult to control.

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According to Brian and Standing (2012), the condition is associated with the problems of depression and mental health. The most highly affected group includes children and adolescents. Their body is active, and cells actively multiply; therefore, the condition uncontrollably affects their mental functioning. Statistically, there are 30-40% of the people with such conditions in the society.

Complex factors contributing to illness and disability in adulthood and later life stages

Some of the factors that contribute to the adulthood illnesses involve challenging behaviors such as aggression and self-injury among many others. These reactions are hormone controlled and may result in unwanted reactions that lead to an illness.

Depression among adults is a key factor that develops illness. Most often, adults have many issues to attend to; as a result, they may devote little time to body resting. These can result in malfunctioning of the body hormones leading to the development of body complication

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Such illness as dementia affects mostly old people (Aveyard and Sharp 2013). Due to the death of many cells in the body, the brain is likely to get inactive; thus, the control of some impulses within the nerves becomes loose. This leads to complications within the body causing illness.




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