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Organizational structure and organizational culture are those concepts which have the greatest explanatory power and helps in understanding the causes and behaviors of people of certain organizations. That is why these two theoretical bases are used in the research as independent variables. They are used in order to explaine many phenomena found in companies and other organizations.
The impact of organizational structure and culture to other control components, usually investigated separately and independently from each other.
The importance of organizational culture is based on impressive set of values and assumptions , which create a framework for interpretations, perceptions, and actions of the members of the organization. Thus, they influence all the processes whichi may happen in the organization.
Organizational structure can be defined as a planned, stable or somehow spontaneous example of interactions and actions that members have to take in order to gain the organizational goals.
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Personality is a potentially important predictor of work behavior. Matching people to job issues, because when people don't fit with their jobs or the company, they will most likely leave, cost companies as much as the person's annual salary to replace them. In interviews when hiring, companies are trying to assess the personality of the candidate and potential good match, but the interview only as good as the people who lead them. In fact, interviewers are not particularly good at finding the best trait that predicts performance: conscientiousness. One method some companies use to improve this game and find people who are potentially good job candidates is checked personality.
There are several types of leadership styles.
- The autocratic style of work is based on the concept that bosses do not take into account the ideas and suggestions of their workers.
- 2. Paternalistic style of work considers that leaders are able to decide what fits best for the company and its employees.
- 3. Democratic style of work
Who in this style of work, bosses welcome feedback from subordinates (Management Style - Meaning and Different Types of Styles, 2013).
Leadership development is becoming more important and strategic imperative for organizations in the modern business environment (Howell, & Hall-Merenda, 1999). Leadership development is an important area that is considered and implemented in organizations to increase human capabilities and some other advantages, as to gain a competitive advatage (Abbas, Yaqoob, 2009).
The leadership development program is designed to increase the skills of managers at all levels as tactical, operational, strategic and personal. Performance is posed as a relevant function of the organization;
Additionally, development programs are very useful in determining the management, where development group and personal development also have a place.
Such term as flexibility can create opportunities to confront a global environment with the help of improving customer coverage and business continuity. Flexibility creates good opportunity to work in various cities and time zones (The Benefits of Flexible Working Arrangements, 2013). It also improves access to new markets. Flexible mechanisms allow each employee from one location to work in the global market.
Occupational factors play an important role in the direction of the productivity of the employees. Factors of the working environment give a huge impact on employees, either negative results or positive results (Chandrasekar, 2001).
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During the last decades, the factors of production environment’s impact on office workers have changed. It happened due to the changes and several factors like information technology, social enviroemnt, and flexible ways of working (Hasun &Makhbul, 2005). According to Boles et al. (2004), if employees are physically and emotionally stable and have a desire to work, the results of such work will be increased. (Burri &Halander, 1991)
Ethical behavior can influence the performance of the company in the short term and long term benefits. Ethical behavior may look positive and affect more and more companies. Scientists are to find a way to motivate the employees for ethical behavior. The current literature states about the majority of the issues of corporate ethical codes (Boyce, et al, 2003).
Several reasons have been suggested why companies report on CSR. There are two main views on this question (Chen, 2010). The first is that companies undertake CSR reporting, because they accept they are responsible for a large range of stakeholders in society, not only for its shareholders. Another explanation is that there is some result, if they report CSR (parquet and Eilbirt 1975). Parquet and Eilbirt (1975) give some examples of these benefits, such as better PR, increase product recognition, motivate employees, increase workforce participation and improve their image in society during the reporting Corporation and, ultimately, higher profitability in the long term. In 1997, the survey showeed that 86% of staff were highly committed to the organization if it was good business ethics (Stodder 1998)
Motivational theory may be applied to workplace settings in order to shed a light on the reasons of some people work better than others or simply have more power to do it (Hasun, & Makhbul, 2005).
To use traditional and innovative strategies, one can choose using the theory of expectations. The expectancy theory is able to put forth the premisefor each specific task Therefore, workers will put a great amount of efforts with an aim to commensurate with their perceived value of the compensation (Ingram, 2014).
Tie compensation incentives directly to a particular production tasks to encourage Your employees to excel. Give generous bonuses for top performers, and to use the intangible rewards in addition to cash compensation for employees ' achievements on a deeper level, extortion deeper level of commitment to the company.
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Coaching and mentoring are the methods development which are based on the use of one-to-one discussions. They are used mostly to improve ones skills, performance, and knowledge. High performance, coaching goals, and improvements in the work usually focuse on specific skills. Although it may have an impact on personal attributes like social interaction, mentoring involves the use of the same skills questioning, models, and frames associated with coaching (Coaching and Mentoring, 2014).
Staff training can improve staff morale, business performance, and profit (Foxon, 1993). Benefits for business include:
- selecting the skills that get labor resources to meet needs;
- training becomes the best customer service;
- demonstrating the value of labor power, improved staff retention (“Benefits of Training Your Staff”)
People management strategies include in the organization's business strategy such components like:
Recruitment and selection of staff: it all starts with hiring the right person for this job.
Training and development: continuous development of your team is important, whether succession planning or shift for increased involvement of employees: the best way to have a finger on the pulse of your team is a measure of their satisfaction. Now this is a difficult activity (Vischer, 2008) Performance management is a great part of business managemet. It measures each person's performance to ensure that the team is meeting expectations. Awards and recognition demonstrate the employees’ value and showing their appreciation for the contribution they make a company can go a long way in improving morale and happiness in the workplace (Vischer, 2007).
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