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For several years, IT departments have been on the edge struggling to deliver projects within time and costs. This challenge has resulted in the adoption of Enterprise Project Management and Project Management Office as a way of improving efficiency, reducing costs and improving project delivery within time and budget. This paper summarizes the PMO and EPM model.
Enterprise Project Management
According to Kendall and Rollins (2003), enterprise project management refers to a software tool, which assists organizations to implement all their projects. In other words, the EPM allows an organization to select, plan, control and implement all projects from a central location, which austerely assures all reports on project progress to a single element. Schwalbe (2013) cited that EPM is an organizational asset that transforms the manner in which an organization conducts its business. The key to the implementation of the EPM is the concept of projects in enterprise and the use of the projects as the foundation for organizational success.
Vision refers to the abstract picture where an organization strives to be in the future. An organizational vision includes the objectives and goals to be attained in terms of structure, revenue, clients, size and other driving elements. Mission refers to a statement for the reason of existence. According to Schwalbe (2013), mission refers to the purpose of existence. Most often, organizations tend to focus their mission on services or products.
Objectives in EPM model refer to a subdivision of mission and provide greater comprehension concerning the components of mission. Objectives frequently address a certain function, such as production. Goals refer to quantifiable attainment showing the performance of producing a service or product. They are often crafted from organizational objectives. Strategy represents all the means by which an organization achieves its mission. The formulation of strategies normally takes place in organizational level, project level, programs and other work elements.
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In the EPM, programs refer to a set of organizational activities resulting in one or more services or products within a certain period. According to Schwalbe (2013), programs, including research and development (R&D), might be fragmentary for many years and deliver several products. Projects refer to a set of related resource-consuming activities, implemented and regulated in a way facilitating change. Organizations might implement projects based on their objectives and goals in order to attain the mission statement. Projects, programs, objectives and other components of the EPM model require policies. Organization procedures and policies play a crucial role in guiding an organization towards the attainment of the mission statement.
The main benefit of EPM is that organizational projects seem to have greater visibility concerning the profitability, and fit in an organization as the foundation for achieving objectives. Frequently, organizations come to the realization that they are in pursuit of wrong projects due to lack of project selection criteria.
Project Management Office (PMO)
PMO refers to an organizational department or group in an organization responsible for defining and maintaining standards for project management. As a department, PMO endeavors to introduce and standardize economies of repetition in the project execution. Studies conducted by Kendall and Rollins (2003) reveal that about 70% of software projects do not meet their targets in terms of time, cost and scope. This is due to several reasons, such as inadequate project estimating and lack of executive sponsorship.
According to Kendall and Rollins (2003), PMO can take other responsibilities beyond the methodology and standard, and take part in strategic management of projects. PMO can participate as either active owner or facilitator of the management. In this regard, their tasks might comprise of monitoring and reporting on active portfolios and projects. The PMO’s level or influence and control on projects rely on the form of the PMO structure in an organization. The control level can be supportive, controlling or directive. The three forms of PMOs include enterprise PMO, special-purpose PMO, or organization/departmental PMO.
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The main purpose of the PMO is overcoming organizational problems from achieving success from projects and programs. Because of this purpose, the problems should define the balance of the role played by the PMO. As a result, the balance of role should determine the key function PMOs perform or the services they provide. The characteristics of these services should then define the kind of staff an organization requires in achieving the mission statement. According to Kendall and Rollins (2003), each organization seems to have its own collection of challenges in the project management. As a result, Schwalbe (2013) asserted that the role varies significantly, partly based on their services provided, and partly based on the skills and experience of the people in the PMO.
PMO and EPM models are very essential in modern day organizations. EPM is an organizational asset that transforms the manner in which an organization conducts its business. The elements of EPM include vision, mission, goal strategies, programs, and projects among others. PMO refers to an organizational department or group in an organization responsible for defining and maintaining standards for project management. The main purpose of the PMO is overcoming organizational problems from achieving success from projects and programs.
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