Evaluating the Research Process

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How is the literature review used in this research?

The research review involves extensive referencing of other related research and theories in the study of pancreatic cancer. The author utilizes various sources in order to draw connections between these sources and his position regarding the disease. He gives a history of the disease and the age bracket that is more prone to infection.

The author engages in a written dialogue with other researchers in explaining his position regarding the disease. For instance, he acknowledges that causes of the disease are still unknown. Moreover, the author appreciates work done by other researchers in trying to find causes of pancreatic cancer among smokers, alcoholics, etc. This shows that the author utilized the literature review to demonstrate his understanding and response to other relevant bodies of knowledge essential for the research.

In general, the literature review has satisfied the requirement of relating works that have been done in the field and how they influence the research. The author used literature selectively in order to provide required guidance for the study. In summary, the literature review provided a historical context of the disease and an overview of the current context.  It also showed relevant concepts and theories relating to the research. It described other related research and the gap the current research seeks to address. Finally, the literature review provided evidence that supports need for the research.

What are ethical considerations for data collection?

The author considered several ethical issues during planning and actual data collection. This is because the research involved an incurable disease with no known cause. However, the bulk of the data came from work done by other researchers with only a few exceptions. Since the processes of collecting data are crucial for a research of such magnitude, it may have caused the author considerable time.

The process required the researcher to demonstrate patience and accuracy in collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data from various sources. This was necessary to avoid wrong conclusions that could jeopardize the whole research. The researcher ensured that data collected reflected what was needed, were disseminated widely, and could be used to improve treatment of the disease. Furthermore, the researcher may have considered utilizing the least intrusive and less costly data collection method.

The researcher needed less permission from people investigated as the research topic involved a disease whose effects are in the public domain. In a bid to avoid any emotional or physical harm to the subjects, the researcher made the findings anonymous. The researcher may have ensured that his personal opinions and biases do not get in the way of the research.

Finally for the journal to be accepted by The New England Journal of Medicine, it must have passed the ethical considerations regarding data collection. The organization is strict in ensuring results are reported accurately.

What is the data telling us in terms of statistical analysis?

The research has used collected data to draw relations with previous studies and trends regarding pancreatic cancer. Some data were used to develop a table that demonstrates the staging of pancreatic cancer. Statistical analysis recognized advancements in other related fields to the subject under study.

The researcher’s aim was to utilize the best method in analyzing data to provide results that are easy to interpret. For instance, the table that shows staging of pancreatic cancer shows the trend resulting from various studies. Most of the data give chronological accounts that result in conclusive relations. For instance, the research gives an account of the percentage number of patients whose families have a history of pancreatic cancer. The increased risk of infection results from genetic causes, which is fifty seven times higher in families with affected members. 

Are the findings statistically significant?

The findings are statistically significant. They give a history of the disease and the trends relating to its causes. The findings give information on methods used to avoid contracting the disease. It also gives information regarding procedures an infected person needs to follow to reduce severity of the disease. For instance, the study suggests that a pancreatic cancer patient needs care from a multidisciplinary team that includes radiologists, radiation oncologists, gastroenterologists, surgeons, pain specialists, nutritionists, among others.

Research data from random clinical trials indicates ability of resection to improve survival. However, the same data indicates that excessive resection leads to increased postoperative morbidity. The data also demonstrated similar outcomes when dealing with patients from different background undergoing different therapies. It found out that all individuals experience similar risk factors for recurrent disease.

Do the conclusions match the results of the study?

The conclusions are in line with the results of the study as they suggest the need to improve all aspects of pancreatic cancer treatment. The study acknowledges the need to conduct early diagnosis among high-risk persons to enable administration of infection prevention measures. Since the disease has no known cause, the research advocates for further research in understanding the biology of pancreatic cancer.

The research also gives detailed information concerning the disease. This includes disease progression from initial stages to the fatal stage. The research analyses possible remedies that can be taken to avoid severe effects.

Do the conclusions answer the research questions in the definition of the problem?

The intension of the research was to investigate pancreatic cancer, a disease that has claimed many lives in the United States. It is ranked fourth among cancer related diseases. The conclusions answer the research objective as it gives, in an overview, the necessary steps one has to take to avoid infection and ways of preventing severity of the disease. The conclusions relate findings from other studies to the research.

Are the conclusions appropriate?

The conclusions are appropriate as they demonstrate the complexity involved in dealing with pancreatic cancer. The genetic element as a risk factor is well explained among other possible causes of the disease. The conclusions also provide information for further research that should be aimed at finding cure for advanced stage pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, the findings are recorded in form of tables that are easy to interpret.

Do you have enough information to make a decision on the effectiveness of the study? If so, is it effective?

The research was effective as it enabled investigations on pancreatic cancer. The findings drawn from the research, among other conclusions reflected the origin and the necessary procedures to prevent or reduce the effects of the disease. The researcher also utilized information from other sources that aided in effective conclusions. Using the findings of the research will help in management and prevention of pancreatic cancer. However, the study also acknowledges difficulties in finding cure for advanced stage infection.

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