Russia

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Russia is a renowned country in the northern side of Eurasia. It is considered a federal and semi-presidential republic, which comprises 83 federal states. Russia is also deemed as the largest country in the whole world, basing on its coverage of more than an eighth of the total’s Earth's land that is inhabited. Its 143 million people make it the world's ninth celebrated populous nation, as of 2012. It is credited for its diversity in nature and life forms, which form the vast of the country. It spans nine major time zones and also incorporates a great range of many green environments and also landforms. Russia is also considered as having the world's greatest reserves of all mineral and also energy resources. It is deemed the largest oil producer and also for natural gas, on the global front. Russia boasts of having the world’s largest and renowned forest reserves.

History

A nation’s history stems from very many issues. It mainly determines how a nation can eventually make decisions in any region and societal value. Russia’s history commenced commensurate to the East Slavs one, who went on to emerge as a great group in the larger parts of Europe between the third and eighths centuries. Having been founded and also ruled by a dreaded Varangian warrior and elite and all their descendants, the given medieval state of the Rus eventually arose in the ninth century. In 988, Russia adopted the Orthodox Christianity from a renowned empire, the Byzantine. This led to the genesis and synthesis of Slavic and also Byzantine cultures that went on to define the nation’s for the years to come (Solovyov, 2001). 

Rus' eventually disintegrated into many other states that were deemed smaller than the original one. Most of the lands that belonged to Rus were also overrun by the dreaded Mongol invasion and went on to become tributaries of the renowned nomadic Golden Horde. By the eighteenth century, Russia had largely expanded majorly by exploration, conquest, and annexation to eventually come out as the renowned Russian Empire. It was to emerge as the third largest empire ever in history, which stretched from Poland that is in Europe to the famous Alaska in the North America (Solovyov, 2001). 

After the dreaded Russian Revolution, the known Russian Soviet and Federative Socialist Republic eventually became the main leading constituent of all the Soviet Union. That marked the world's ever first constitutionally and socialist state that came out as the only recognized superpower that went on to play the very decisive role in line with the famous and Allied victory of nations in the World War II.  

Education

Russia boasts of an education system that is considered free. This is held supreme by the nation’s Constitution, to all citizens. However, the subsidized post-secondary system of education is deemed highly competitive. Since the nation places a lot of emphasis on technology and science in their education system, the Russian scientific, medical, aerospace and mathematical research is considered of an extremely high order (Weinberg, 1995). 

Since the early 1990s the known 11-year system of education has also been introduced in Russia. Education in the nation in alls state-owned secondary schools is considered free. The tertiary level of education and University level is also deemed free, with minor exceptions. Technology refers to, the making, usage, modification, and size of machines, tools, methods applied by an order when dealing with problems. It also applies to methods applied when improving an already existing solution and when performing a duty or achieving a goal. The superficial IT evolution can be said to be preceded by hand and print revolutions. All the things that one can now handle within a short spun of time just by the click of a button is quite different from the past. Systems like phones, computers and other electronic devices can carry out a bunch of work just by the click of the correct button within a minimum duration unlike in the past. They have made the lives of young people comfortable and swifter, as explained in Russia.

Religion

As mentioned earlier, Orthodox Christianity, the Islam, Judaism and also Buddhism are the main traditional religions in Russia, and are considered legally a major part of Russia's main historical heritage. The renowned Russian Orthodox Church emerged as the country's state and only religion before any revolution took place. It still remains the largest and most sought religious body in Russia. There are great disparities on the numbers of believers and church goers as this estimates keep on varying as beliefs change and diversify on a daily basis.

Easter holiday is always considered the most celebrated religious holiday in the country. It sums to over 90% of the whole population who give credence to the holiday and observe it, without fail.  Those who deem themselves as non religious are no exception when it comes to Easter holidays. It goes on record that over three-quarters of all the Russian population always celebrate Easter by clearly making traditional and sweet Easter cakes, colored eggs and also paskha (Geoffrey, 2006).

The Russian Orthodoxy, which can be traced back to the early Christianization of the Kievan Rus' as recorder in the tenth century, emerges as main religion in the nation. Almost100 million of all citizens in Russia deem themselves as Russian Orthodox Christians.  All of the registered parishes aligned to Orthodox belong to the given Russian Orthodox Church. However, it is worth noting that the very the vast majority of all the Orthodox believers never take upon themselves to attend church on every regular basis. Other smaller Christian denominations and those that are not widely celebrated, for example the Catholics, protestandts, and the Armenian Gregorians also exist (Stone, 2007). 

Language

Russia's 160 known ethnic groups always speak a total of 100 languages. The 2002 Census brought out a record 142.6 million who people speak pure Russian language, followed by the Tatar which counted at 5.3 million and also Ukrainian which boasted of 1.8 million speakers. The official state language in the nation is considered to be Russian, and this gives other immigrants a hard time in line with settling in Russia, given that most of them may not understand the language. However, the Constitution gives all the individual citizens and republics of Russia the right to choose what they deem as necessary official native language, and use it whenever they feel comfortable. Despite the wide distribution of the Russian language, the latter is considered homogeneous throughout the whole nation. Russian comes out as the most geographically and widespread language of the whole Eurasia, and also the most vastly spread and spoken Slavic language (Sakwa, 2010).

Economy

The Russian economy can be looked at as the world's ever ninth largest by its nominal GDP and also the sixth largest by its parity in purchasing power. It also has the the 3rd largest ever nominal military equipped budget. Russia is considered one of the major world's growing economies (Weinberg, 1995). 

It has a market deemed economy with its vast natural resources, majorly oil and also natural gas. Since the eventual change in 21st century, extremely high domestic consumption rates and also great political stability have been the main reason behind the bolstering of the economic growth in the nation. Russia finally ended 2008 as its ninth corresponding straight growth year, averaging about 7% on annual basis between. Its real GDP per capita counted at 19,840 in the year 2010 (Jason, 2006). 

The growth was deemed primarily driven by all non-traded services including all goods planned for their domestic market. This was in opposing the earlier idea that either oil or mineral extractions were the main determinants and also exports. In 2010, it was estimated that approximately a total of 13.7% of all the Russians were living below the set national poverty line, which was a significant drop from the 40% that was experienced in 1998.  In 2007, the rate of unemployment was at 6%, in Russia, down from the 12.4% experienced in 1999. Another occurrence was the growth of the middle class from just a mere 8 million persons in the year 2000 to a total of 55 million persons in the year 2006 (Jason, 2006). 

The Russian economy as at the end of the famous Soviet Union

Politics

Governance

The basis of every nation is always bestowed upon the government and its authorities. The Constitution of renowned Russia stems the country as a federation and also a semi-presidential republic. The President is deemed the main head of state, while the government is headed by the prime minister. Its Federation is mainly structured as a major multi-party representative of democracy, with their federal government made up of the legislative, executive and the judiciary (Weinberg, 1995). 

The nations’ president is always elected by the popular vote for a whole six-year term. The governmental ministries are composed of the main Premier and also his deputies, all ministers, and other selected individuals. All the mentioned individuals are appointed by the nation’s President on the final recommendation and understanding of their Prime Minister. The major leading political parties and organs in Russia include the United Russia, the famous Communist Party, the daily Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, and also A Just Russia (Sakwa, 2010).

Foreign Relations

Russia is recognized in all international law as a major successor state in line with former Soviet Union. It continues to gear towards implement the renowned international commitments that are held dear by the USSR, eventually assuming the USSR's deemed permanent seat that exists in UN Security Council (Peter, 2006). Civil liberties refer to freedoms and civil rights that protect individual rights. They differ amongst different countries. Some examples include freedom from slavery, freedom from forced labor, freedom from torture, freedom from death, the right to security and freedom among others. Wilson Woodrow and his administration took several steps to provoke the nation for war. Congress did pass laws to suppress dessent. Mobs attacked false suspects. Newspapers were under inspection and some politicians jailed. Some Americans organized a protest. This protest was against democratic freedoms. By world war1, issues of fundamental labor, socialism, opposition, to fight and foreign enemies were close. They were all viewed as a menace by the federal government. On April 16, 1917, all males over fourteen years of age, who were subjects, denizens or citizens of German under tagging as alien enemies. In 1918, an Act of Congress involved ladies fourteen years and above, of age.

President Wilson issued close to twelve regulations for foreign treatment in the same time the congress declared a state of war. Alien enemies did not have permission to own any firearms or aircrafts. They could not divulge any “attack” upon branches of the government. They could not stay in areas that the president did stop. Alien enemies could not leave U.S without permission. Aliens were under control of travelling by air. The federal government intruded upon the right of dessent. The radical division of labor was under attention by the government because of many reasons. An example being, it has been a successful in the start decades of the twentieth century. Some leading communist and leaders believed the war did exist primarily for capitalism and not for hostility towards foreign workers.

It also has membership in many other international organizations, which form the basis of their citizens rights and also obligations that exist under the international treaties, and also property and other debts. Russia boasts of a foreign policy that is multifaceted. As of the records of the year 2009, Russia still maintains strong diplomatic relations with over 191 countries and also boasts of 144 embassies. Their foreign policy is always determined by the head of state and eventually implemented by the nation’s Ministry of Home affairs (Weinberg, 1995). 

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